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2 ° F) to 10 ° C ( 18 ° F) above T S, isolated bubbles form at nucleation sites and separate from the surface. This separation induces considerable fluid mixing near the surface, substantially increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient and the heat. Critical heat flux ( CHF) describes the thermal limit of a phenomenon where a phase change occurs during heating ( such as bubbles forming on a metal surface used to heat water), which suddenly decreases the efficiency of heat transfer, thus causing localised overheating of the heating surface.